Author Topic: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)  (Read 677 times)

Dave Winfield

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Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« on: November 12, 2015, 01:51:57 PM »
I am currently building my second "test" Tutor Jet model.
I think I worked out all the parts, kinks, tweaks, and bugs in the first build (the Snowbirds version).
So lets build a Golden Centennaires version of the Canadair CL-41 (RCAF CT-114 designation).

This will be a complete photo walkthrough with a suggested order of build.
You can, of course, follow your own method and make any changes to the assembly as you wish.
What I show you here is only a suggested assembly method and may not be the optimal method.

We start by preparing the internal formers.
The model has one sheet of formers for the fuselage, wings and tail wings.
Print the sheet on regular weight paper and glue it to heavier card.
I use two layers of Cereal Box card, laminated together using 3M Spray 77 Glue.

Everything that is glued should be allowed to setup as long as possible before cutting or assembly.
This applies to any part on the model.
Patience gives rewards when building a paper model.

Here I have cut out all the fuselage formers.
I cut directly on the outside lines as best as possible (not inside or outside).
I sand and shape with nail files and emery boards as much as necessary.

Note that I have notched the nose former for the wheel well box...this is optional.

Next I prepare the first sheet of model parts...
I am focusing on the fuselage parts, but I still prepare the entire sheet. 
It is at this time that I can prescore any fold lines before cutting out parts.

I use a regular Hobby/Craft Knife with a dulled blade.
The blade has been flattened against a stone and sandpaper.

Now I cut out all the fuselage parts that I will need.
Some modellers like to cut out all their parts and store them until they are used.
I prefer to cut out only parts I am working with so I don't lose part numbers.
There is no right way to do this.

I also cut out and prepare all the joiner strips for the fuselage parts.
And this is where I edge colour my parts.

Personally, I use Art Markers for my edge colouring.
Markers can apply too much ink and bleed into the parts. It takes practice to learn how to use them.
Some modellers prefer using pencils, pastels or paints.

You can see I have also cut out the nose wheel well box,
and the nose strakes (side skirts)
and the nose wheel doors.

Always test fit parts, even if they are not shaped yet.
Get a feel for how the parts line up and how they must assemble.
Check the edge colouring and touch up if necessary.

Here I am noting the wheel well openings.
In the first section of fuselage, I have not cut out the wheel well doors yet.
It would make it more difficult to assemble that section.

I have cut out the opening in the second section, because the part has a longer connecting seam.
I will trim out the rest of the wheel well opening after the fuselage is assembled.


Dave Winfield

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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #1 on: November 12, 2015, 02:51:19 PM »
The nosecone" on the CL-41 is actually a glass nose housing a headlight among other things.
I'm no expert on Tutor's, so I don't know exactly what is in there...
but I do know that earlier Tutors had a shorter domed nose bubble
whereas later Tutors had an elongated dome protecting an antenna of some sort.

Nobi provided me with two patterns for the early and late style noses.
I applied a photo realistic effect...trying to make it look like glass.

On this earlier model, I will be installing the round domed nose but in the photo below
you can see the other pattern, and the late style nose on the Snowbird jet.

Heres a side view of the later version of the glass nose.
See how it elongates at the bottom.

The two styles build in exactly the same manner.
It helps to precurve the parts as much as possible before gluing.

Precurving parts is extremely important.
Everything will glue together a lot easier if it already wants to hold the correct shape.

I use dowels of various sizes, as well as pencils, markers, paintbrushes, etc to roll the fuselage sections.
I use the formers as reference to get the correct shapes.
It takes a while, and you will have to do it more than once, since the parts will relax and lose the shape before you assemble.

I have prepared a few parts here for gluing.
I have folded the wheel well box, folded the double lamination parts, and prepared the joiner strips.

Use the straight joiners to connect each cylinder section of the fuselage.
Make sure you use a straight edge on all straight cuts like the ends of these parts.
This will give you the best possible connection at this seam.
Focus on a nice tight seam with no gap.

I have also glued the nose cone part, the wheel well box, and the flat laminated parts.
Plenty of stuff to glue...but let it all set up a good long time before fitting parts together.
I often wait at least one full day.


Dave Winfield

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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #2 on: November 12, 2015, 07:40:15 PM »
Back to that nose cone again...

like I do with a lot of parts, I try to smooth out seams and add more curve to domes and rounded parts.
I do this with a round ended tool like the knife handle you can see in the following photo.
I also use the rounded end of metal Knife handle and I have various wooden dowels that I have sanded round on the ends.

Place the part face down on the cutting mat, and apply pressure to the inside of the seams.
Keep the part moving as you work the seams from the backside.
You can smooth out joints, and you can stretch out more curve from the paper creating smoother domes and such.

Now that all the fuselage sections are assembled as tubes, you can insert and glue in place, the tabbed joiner strips.
You need to do this after the sections are curved and glued as tubes,
because the inside diameter will decrease, and the joiner strips have a tighter radius.

Now I am all ready to assemble the front half of the fuselage.

I start at the nose and connect the first two sections.
Unless its a real small part, I'll glue only part way around and fit to get a tight seam and connection.
When its completely secure, I glue more until I work my way all the way around the part.
The goal is to get a tight connection with little or no gaps.
You can't always do that if you try to glue all the way around (all at once).

You can also see from this photo, the way I have cut out only part of the wheel well opening.
After the glue sets up on this connection, I can cut out the rest using a small fine pair of scissors.

I install the first fuselage former by test fitting it, adjusting the shape and size as needed (sanding)
and then pushing it in from the rear.
Once I have established its position and planned out the procedure, I will coat the inside of the nose section
with glue and push the former into place. Obviously aligning the vertical axis is very important with all formers.

While I am waiting for glue to dry...which I do a lot...I will go and work on another area of the model
as long as it doesn't disrupt my order or cause any confusion.

In this case, I assembled one of the separate assemblies: the upper rear canopy extension that fits on top of the fuselage.

Three parts connect together with tabbed strips to form the tapered body part.
It needs to be preshaped before attaching the tabbed strips and then connecting the parts.
Use the front former part as reference for the shape.

The side attachment strips are optional.
I did not need them on the Snowbird build.
But they are included for those who have difficulty with edge gluing of parts.


Dave Winfield

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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #3 on: November 13, 2015, 10:02:56 AM »
To finish off that cockpit extension part, you need to attach the front former.
It will sit on top of the fuselage, thats why it has been separated from the lower part of the former.

Glue the former in place very close to the edge of the assembly.
Its best to leave just enough for another layer of card.
(There is another flat cockpit part that attaches to the face of this former.)

I start by gluing the top center area...only a few millimetres.
Line up the top center references.
And then work my way down each side, gluing small sections at a time.
Take your time and allow glue to dry until you get to the ends.
If you have lined it up properly, there will be about a 1mm overhang on each side.

Back to the Nose again!

Lets fit the wheel well box.
Its only very slightly oversize to the opening,
so some care must be taken to position it right.
Prefold the mounting tabs, make sure they are tightly folded over and test fit the part.
Once you have a good understanding of how and where it fits and how to hold it in place,
go ahead and glue it in.

Once I am sure the wheel well box is secure and will not separate away from the fuselage part, I slip in the second former.
My approach to fuselage formers is a snug fit, but not so tight as to cause bulging or "ribbing" in the fuselage.
With this former you need to cut out the notch until it is snug over the wheel box, but not tight fitting.
In fact, the sides can be loose, as long as the top of the notch presses against the wheel box.

The overall former fit in the fuselage should be snug, but not tight...and it has to fit within the tabbed joiner strip.
Doesn't have to be perfectly on the fuselage seam, but close to it.

Heres the finished nose sections with the domed "glass" part attached (edge glued to the front former).

You can also see the opening is trimmed as neceesary...I cut out the the last parts before installing the wheel box
but you can probably do it after? (But its probably easier if you do it before)

In the background is the completed cockpit upper extension.
After it has setup for a day or two, I very carefully trim the edges, across each seam, and smooth out any uneveness.

You can also see the nose assembly...we'll get to that later.


Dave Winfield

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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #4 on: November 13, 2015, 12:14:33 PM »
So, continuing on...
attach the third section of the front fuselage in the same manner.
[Test fit, make sure you understand how it lines up, then glue over the tabbed strip.]

It makes sense to line up the top or bottom of the sections and glue no more than one third.
Work that area to get the best connection... and after its nice and secure, glue another third.
And so on.

Then install the snug fitting (but not too tight) former.
Position it inside the joiner strip and glue it in place.
I sometimes transfer a reference line (pencil) inside the parts to know exaclty where centerlines, top and bottom, are.

The fourth section of the fuselage is only half line it up and glue one side,
then wrap it around and glue the other side (making sure graphics line up as you do it).

Fitting the instrument panel/ cockpit former is pretty straightforward (but a little tricky because of the squared off top corners).
Make sure to black out the edges of the cutout.
Once again, a snug fit is all that is needed, so sand the part until it just slips in.
Make sure it is aligned vertically!

At this point I started assembling the rear half of the fuselage.
The goal being to join both halves in the middle somewhere.

I should have added one more section to the front half of the fuselage
...I'll come back to this and explain later.

Assemble the fuselage sections (from the tail end) in the same manner as you did the front hal.
You also need to install the inner liner in the last section
and then install the exhaust tube.

These are simple rolled tubes...
liner is installed flush with the end of the last fuselage section
and the other two tubes are assembled together to form the exhaust tube.
(Theres also a flat end to the exhaust tube)

The Formers are fitted the same way.
Note that the last former is also the support for the exhaust tube.
The exhaust tube should be glued to that last former, and should stick out past the end of the fuselage about 1-2mm.


Dave Winfield

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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #5 on: November 13, 2015, 12:39:17 PM »
When finished, you should halve a complete fuselage in two halves.
This is where I made a small mistake with this build.

Its my recommendation that the last connection is where it is shown by the arrow in this photo...

Using my first "white" build as an example...
attach one more section to the front half of the Fuselage.
The section at the rear of the cockpit opening.

Preshape this section to match the formers...note the almost square corners.

This gives you five sections in the front half of the fuselage.
And it makes it easier to fit the rear cockpit former in place.
You can reach inside from the rear to assist with the install.
Its very important that this former is flush with the rear of the cockpit opening
and is perfectly vertically flat (so the cockpit tub mounts properly).

It is possible to start installing the cockpit parts at this point,
but it might be smarter to finish the fuselage assembly so as not to damage any cockpit parts.

This is only a recommended assembly procedure.
You might find your own method that works for you.
The end result is all that matters.

Once the two halves of the Fuselage are complete,
you need to install one last former and connect the two halves.

This is probably the trickiest part of the assembly because you cannot reach inside to assist with the connection.
Take your time...line up the two halves and familiarize yourself with the connection...
then apply glue and push the halves together.
If that last former is fitted properly, it will greatly simplify the connection.


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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #6 on: November 14, 2015, 07:56:16 PM »
Lets keep it going...

remember that rear upper cockpit extension thingy?
Well, it fits here.
Hopefully should fit into the marked area and lines up, at the front, with the cockpit former.

There are two tabbed attachment strips provided but to be honest, edge gluing is the way to go.
Carefully apply a very thin bead of glue to the edges - just to the inside - and position the assembly.
Takes a few minutes to get it all to stay down nice and tight to the fuselage.

Now you can start installing the cockpit parts...or leave it until later, its up to you.

The tub of the cockpit is separated into two parts for easy installation.
You need to score and fold the parts accordingly.

Place the rear cockpit wall in first and glue it to the formers.

Don't know what else to say at this point...

The main cockpit part will slip and flex and slide into the opening quite easily.

But first, you need to fold the edges of the cockpit and glue them down.
Cut two thin strips of cardstock and add some layers to the folded down areas.

This rigid thicker "side rail" will be your attaching point to the fuselage.

Pop the cockpit tub back into the fuselage
and glue those side rails to the fuselage sides, flush at the tops.
Note, there is a little strip on the fuselage that should eextend beyond the cockpit tub.
This is an attachment strip for the canopy.
You can actually cut this off if you are creating an open canopy.

Make sure to push the cockpit tub backwards, and tight against the rear wall.


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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #7 on: November 15, 2015, 07:42:23 AM »
...continuing with Cockpit...

installing cockpit components is really very straightforward
and theres plenty of room for the builder to add more detail if they like.
Layering parts (print multiples, cut out surface elements and details, add more 3D effect) is a quick way to add more realistic detail.
Or just leave things as they are.

I created a simplified version of the Tutor Ejection Seat...
and everything is doubled for the right and left seats.
We start with the seat part itself which is scored and folded, and two outer sides are attached.

The Seat attaches to the front of the ejection slide...which is simple boxed tube construction.
(Theres a little insert piece that closes the top of the ejection slide.

Next, assemble the side and center consoles.
Once again, fairly simple construction: cut out, fold the pre-scored spots, and glue as needed.
The trick is taking your time and paying attention to keeping everything square.
You don't want the finished part to have twists in it.
If you fail...throw out the part, print another and try again.
Its worth the wasted ink and card to gain the experience. You'll save in the future.

Jumping to the Instrument Panel... there are three main parts and a backing part.
Once again, prescore everything and carefully cut out.

Two small side panel extensions are folded and attached to the Instrument panel
and these will also help hide the gaps at the sides of the fuselage.

The Instrument panel has been carefully positioned and glued to the backing part
and now both are carefully cut out once more.

Now the Rudder Pedals can be bent into postion as shown,
and the lower instrument panel extension can be bent forward to fit over the center console.


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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #8 on: November 16, 2015, 10:20:54 AM »
Seats again...

Score, fold and assemble the lower seat/cushion.
Its important that folds are square and the whole assembly is squared off properly
otherwise it won't fit into the seat frame properly.

Both seats are the same.

a second layer to the seat back is installed already into the seat frame
and in front of that will go the two seat cushions (back and headrest).

The seat cushion parts are laminated to two or three layers of card to create some visual depth.
Just glue the part to multiple layers and then cut them out.
Don't forget to edge colour!

The completed ejection seats are ready to install.

Note how they lean backwards a little...if you assembled all the parts correctly.

I also touched up all the edge colouring, including the yellow ejection handles.

Last part needed is the cowling over the Instrument Panel.
This also covers the fusleage ahead of the cockpit
and defines where the front canopy/windscreen will fit.

Two parts, connected by a tabbed joiner strip.
Preforming the part makes assembly much easier...using the instrument panel as your guide.
Shape the main part of the cowling and then shape the smaller front part to match.

Once glued together, you can trim the edges.
Cut off just as much needed to smooth the connection between the two parts.

Test fit to the fusleage...curve as necessary for the best fit...
make sure it fits within the marked location.


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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #9 on: November 16, 2015, 10:39:12 AM »
Okay, lets put the rest of the cockpit together.

As I mentioned before, you can install the cockpit components later if you wish
but it does make a nice break from the fuselage assembly.

Fit the side and center consoles.
Pretty straightforward, the cockpit floor is marked where to place them.
All three consoles must fit to the back wall of the cockpit.
Keep them contained to the marked areas so the Seats will still fit into the spaces between.

Next install the Instrument panel by gluing it flat to the front cockpit former.
The shoulders of the panel align with the top edges of the cockpit sides.

Make sure to position the center console overlap part and glue to the center console.

Then attach the Instrument panel Cowling (within the marked area on the fuselage.
Edge glue to the fuselage as flush as possible.
Try not to make a mess with glue, but don't worry too much since the edges of the cowling will
be hidden behind the front Canopy/Windscreen.

Make sure the overhang of the cowling (over the instrument panel) is about 1-2mm (max.).

Go ahead and fit the Ejection Seats in place.
Make sure they sit flat on the cockpit floor...which means they sit on a slight angle,
with only the upper part of the ejection rails touching the back wall of the cockpit.

While we are here (at the front of the aircraft)
lets attach the side strakes to the nose.

The Strakes are made by folding and gluing the parts to create double sided and stiffer parts.
Once the glue has set up, carefully cut out the strakes as defined.
Make sure to edge colour these parts since they are very visble against the fuselage.
For this aircraft, you will need three colours to match the paint scheme.

Edge glue the parts carefully and tightly into place against the fuselage.
There is a solid line indicating their position on the nose of the aircraft.
And the paint scheme should match up.


Dave Winfield

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Re: Lets build a CL-41 Tutor Jet (Photo Walkthrough)
« Reply #10 on: November 17, 2015, 03:33:07 PM »
The Cockpit assembly is complete except for the Seat Belts and Control Sticks
which are fairly straightforward, but tedious to prepare.
Small parts, delicate cutting...carefully folded and glued into place.

Theres room for builder options...use the parts as supplied or design your own.
(Heres the first white build...the part installations are a little easier to see)

Moving on, its time to add some wings...
starting with the internal spars and wing ribs.

At the beginning of the build, the Formers page was printed on regular weight paper
and then glued to thicker cardboard...about 1mm total thickness.

All slots and openings in the formers and other parts are intended for 1mm thicknesses.

Cutting out all the Wing Spars and Ribs, you'll need to use a straight edge to ensure straight precise cuts
and to keep all the parts as closely matched as possible.
The main Spar is made of three parts (Right and Left Spars and a center joiner.
A secondary (rear) Spar is one piece and smaller.
Everything locks together with the Wing Ribs (four on either side of the aircraft).

The Wheel Well boxes will fill up one of the openings, but most will be filled with flat spacers and gussets.

When assembling Ribs to Spar, top and bottom surfaces must be flush with each other.
So trim out mating slots until you can easily, but tightly fit things together
and adjust slot depths as needed to keep things flush.
Don't accpet "close enough" it right.

You can (if you choose to) go ahead and glue all the Wing to Rib connections BUT...only assemble one side.
The Spars still have to slide through the fuselage ...and be centered.
Once the Ribs are all in place, the assembly will be locked into the fuselage.

I think it makes sense to assemble one side including gussets and spacers and glue all the components together.
This will lock everything in place and keep it all square while you fit it into the fuselage.
But you can also square everything up after installing in the fuselage, and then install the spacers and gussets (as I have done).

The front Spar center Joiner is marked to help you align it in the fuselage.
Its a good idea to locate and glue it in place, as well as securing the rear Spar (once you are sure of its position).

Wheel Wells are easy to assemble if you cut them out carefully and prescore all the necessary fold points.
Prefold everything and then start gluing tabs around the wheel wells until it is enclosed.
Fold the outer tabs away from the box to create mating surfaces for the Wing skins.

The Well boxes fit snugly into the Rib and Spar assembly.
You can glue in place if you choose to.

Making sure to cut all Gussets and Spacers perfectly square is very important.
They need to be installed snugly into corners and have to square everything up.

Make sure to use all of the parts, and add more if you like.