Author Topic: December (2017)  (Read 544 times)

Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #22 on: December 15, 2017, 12:48:24 PM »
December 15, 2001 Leaning Tower of Pisa Reopens



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One of Italy's most famous tourist attractions, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, has reopened for the first time in almost 12 years.
Bells rang out across Pisa to mark the tower's restoration.

One of the first visitors said the experience was "unbelievable". She said that after years of thinking that the tower was going to fall down, "you can't describe the sensation you have when you walk up the steps."

It was closed in 1990 because it was in danger of falling over but after construction work costing millions, tourists can once again enter the 800-year-old tower.

To the naked eye, the 56-metre-high tower looks the same as it always has.

But in fact the lean has been corrected by 45 centimetres.



 The leaning tower, begun more than 800 years ago, developed a tilt almost from the start because it was built on sandy foundations.

 This lean has intrigued generations of admirers of medieval architecture, but in 1990 engineers said the white marble tower was so far out of perpendicular that it risked toppling over.

 The tower was closed and an engineering plan to save it was worked out by an international committee. Work on digging out part of the shifting foundations and placing counterweights ended last summer.

Previously anyone could climb the 284 steps to the top, to admire a fine view over the city of Pisa and its surrounding countryside.

 But now tourists will be limited to guided tours of only 30 people at a time and they will have to book in advance.

 Work on straightening the leaning tower cost $25m, but engineers say it should now survive for another 200 years at least.
  ...BBCNews Europe



Not sure if they worked out the angles enough to say this is pre-1990 or post-2001, but you can get the model at Canon, http://cp.c-ij.com/en/contents/CNT-0011916/index.html
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Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #23 on: December 16, 2017, 07:51:19 AM »
December 16, 1915 Einstein's General Theory of Relativity Published



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On the recommendation of Italian mathematician Tullio Levi-Civita, Einstein began exploring the usefulness of general covariance (essentially the use of tensors) for his gravitational theory.

For a while Einstein thought that there were problems with the approach, but he later returned to it and, by late 1915, had published his general theory of relativity in the form in which it is used today. This theory explains gravitation as distortion of the structure of spacetime by matter, affecting the inertial motion of other matter. During World War I, the work of Central Powers scientists was available only to Central Powers academics, for national security reasons. Some of Einstein’s work did reach the United Kingdom and the United States through the efforts of the Austrian Paul Ehrenfest and physicists in the Netherlands, especially 1902 Nobel Prize-winner Hendrik Lorentz and Willem de Sitter of Leiden University.

Eleven years after On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Einstein published his second groundbreaking work on General Relativity, which continues and expands the original theory. A preeminent feature of General Relativity is its view of gravitation. Einstein held that the forces of acceleration and gravity are equivalent. Again, the single premise that General Relativity is based on is surprisingly simple. It states that all physical laws can be formulated so as to be valid for any observer, regardless of the observer's motion. Consequently, due to the equivalence of acceleration and gravitation, in an accelerated reference frame, observations are equivalent to those in a uniform gravitational field.

This led Einstein to redefine the concept of space itself. In contrast to the Euclidean space in which Newton’s laws apply, he proposed that space itself might be curved. The curvature of space, or better spacetime, is due to massive objects in it, such as the sun, which warp space around their gravitational centre. In such a space, the motion of objects can be described in terms of geometry rather than in terms of external forces.
... World History Project

Hmmm, where was that quantum model?  Since this theory has helped us understand space/time, maybe Dave's Tardis would be a good model.  Or we can use MAK's hako of The Man, http://www.papermodelers.com/forum/vbdownloads.php?do=download&downloadid=59

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Lighter

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #24 on: December 16, 2017, 11:52:45 AM »
I have a general theory about my relatives . . .


Yes - a violation of the rules in that it is a smart a** comment without a link to a paper model.  The devil made me do it.   Hummm - how would the Z-unmensch handle this?  Ooo, ooo, ooo - I know!
Bristow, VA

Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #25 on: December 16, 2017, 12:42:24 PM »
All this German stuff reminds me of a site that was new to me this week, http://www.o5m6.de/, Engines of the Red Army and Wehrmacht

In one of the gaming communities, a guy was trying to do a proxy for a Zis-5, and he asked for help.  The model he was trying to repaint was a truck and it had fenders and a bed, but not very close.
Found a lot of info there that allowed me to help him out

Of course this has little to do with Einstein
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Dave Winfield

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #26 on: December 16, 2017, 04:20:37 PM »
I met his brother Bob once...he gave me a Super Dave badge.
DAVE WINFIELD - GO TO WWW.CUTANDFOLD.INFO FOR MY DESIGNS AND LOTSA FREE STUFF!

Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #27 on: December 17, 2017, 01:30:01 PM »
December 17, 1979 Stan Barrett Breaks Sound Barrier ... Maybe



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On December 17, 1979, Hollywood stuntman Stan Barrett blasts across a dry lakebed at California’s Edwards Air Force Base in a rocket- and missile-powered car, becoming the first man to travel faster than the speed of sound on land. He did not set an official record, however. The radar scanner was acting up, and so Barrett’s top speed–739.666 miles per hour by the most reliable measure–was only an estimate. Also, he only drove his rocket car across the lakebed once, not twice as official record guidelines require. And, none of the spectators heard a sonic boom as Barrett zoomed across the course.

Barrett was a 36-year-old stuntman and ex-lightweight Golden Glove champ who had been introduced to auto racing by Paul Newman in 1971. (He was the actor’s stunt double for the film “Sometimes a Great Notion.”) Barrett’s car, the $800,000 Budweiser Rocket, was owned by the movie director Hal Needham, a former racer himself who had broken a nine-year-old world land-speed record on the Bonneville Salt Flats the previous September. The car had a 48,000-horsepower rocket engine and, to give it a little extra kick, a 12,000-horsepower Sidewinder missile.

December 17 was a dry day with temperatures hovering around 20 degrees Fahrenheit. In order to break the sound barrier under those conditions, Barrett had to go faster than 731.9 miles per hour. He started the rocket engine and stepped on the gas; then, after counting to 12, he pushed a button on his steering wheel to fire the Sidewinder so he could go even faster. After he zoomed past a battery of timing devices, Barrett deployed a parachute to help him slow down. In all, it took only a handful of seconds for Barrett to blast across the 5 3/4-mile lakebed.

Unfortunately, the radar speedometers on the ground malfunctioned: Instead of the Rocket’s speed, they measured the speed of a passing truck (38 miles per hour). The final speed estimate came from data by the Air Force, whose scanners seemed to indicate that the Rocket had “probably exceeded the speed of sound.”

Controversy over how fast Barrett actually went persists to this day. It took until October 1997 for another driver, in a British car called the Thrust SSC, to officially break the Mach 1 sound barrier.
... History.com

Of course you can find Dave's Bud Rocket Car at http://davesdesigns.ca/cutandfold/html/racerz.html#SPEEDERZ
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Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #28 on: December 18, 2017, 11:22:58 AM »
December 18 1936 - Su-Lin, the first giant panda to come to the U.S. from China
...arrived in San Francisco, CA. The bear was sold to the Brookfield Zoo for $8,750.
Su-Lin died after only two years in captivity and her body is stuffed and on display
at the Field Museum in Chicago.  Way to go humans!



Su-Lin was captured from the wild...nobody seems to care what happened to its Mother.

Isn't it nicer to have a paper one?
Model link (Canon Papercraft):
http://cp.c-ij.com/en/contents/CNT-0011481/index.html
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Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #29 on: December 19, 2017, 11:22:34 AM »
December 19, 1972 Splashdown of Last Apollo Mission



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At 2:25 p.m. EST—12 days, 13 hours, 51 minutes, 59 seconds after departing the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida—the Apollo 17 command module America (CM-112) returned to Earth, splashing down in the South Pacific Ocean, approximately 350 miles (563 kilometers) southeast of Samoa. The three 83 foot, 6 inch diameter (25.451 meters) ring sail main parachutes had deployed at an altitude of 10,500 feet (3,200 meters) and slowed the capsule to 22 miles per hour (35.4 kilometers per hour) before it hit the ocean’s surface.

The landing had a high degree of accuracy, coming within 4.0 miles (6.44 kilometers) of the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Ticonderoga (CVS-14).

The flight crew was picked up by a Sikorsky SH-3G Sea King helicopter, Bu. No. 149930, of HC-1, and transported to Ticonderoga. The three astronauts, Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald A. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt, stepped aboard the aircraft carrier 52 minutes after splashdown.

The splashdown of Apollo 17 brought to an end the era of manned exploration of the Moon which had begun just 3 years, 3 days, 5 hours, 52 minutes, 59 seconds earlier with the launch of Apollo 11.

Just 12 men have set foot on the Moon. In 42 years, no human has returned.
... This Day in Aviation

You can find many Apollo-related models at http://jleslie48.com/gallery_models_real.html

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If you were to say to a physicist in 1899 that in 1999, a hundred years later, ... that humankind would travel to the moon, and then lose interest, ... the physicist would almost certainly pronounce you mad.
  Michael Crichton, Intro to Timeline
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Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #30 on: December 20, 2017, 12:13:32 PM »
December 20, 1943 Medal of Honor



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MEDAL OF HONOR

VOSLER, FORREST L.

(Air Mission)

Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army Air Corps. 358th Bomber Squadron, 303d Bomber Group.

Place and date: Over Bremen, Germany, December 20, 1943.

Entered service at: Rochester, New York. Born: July 29, 1923, Lyndonville, New York.

G.O. No.: 73, September 6, 1944.

Citation:

Forest Volser was the radio operator on the Boeing B-17F-65-BO Flying Fortress, 42-29664, the “Jersey Bounce Jr.” (U.S. Air Force)

For conspicuous gallantry in action against the enemy above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio operator-air gunner on a heavy bombardment aircraft in a mission over Bremen, Germany, on 20 December 1943. After bombing the target, the aircraft in which T/Sgt. Vosler was serving was severely damaged by antiaircraft fire, forced out of formation, and immediately subjected to repeated vicious attacks by enemy fighters. Early in the engagement a 20-mm. cannon shell exploded in the radio compartment, painfully wounding T/Sgt. Vosler in the legs and thighs. At about the same time a direct hit on the tail of the ship seriously wounded the tail gunner and rendered the tail guns inoperative. Realizing the great need for firepower in protecting the vulnerable tail of the ship, T/Sgt. Vosler, with grim determination, kept up a steady stream of deadly fire. Shortly thereafter another 20-mm. enemy shell exploded, wounding T/Sgt. Vosler in the chest and about the face. Pieces of metal lodged in both eyes, impairing his vision to such an extent that he could only distinguish blurred shapes. Displaying remarkable tenacity and courage, he kept firing his guns and declined to take first-aid treatment. The radio equipment had been rendered inoperative during the battle, and when the pilot announced that he would have to ditch, although unable to see and working entirely by touch, T/Sgt. Vosler finally got the set operating and sent out distress signals despite several lapses into unconsciousness. When the ship ditched, T/Sgt. Vosler managed to get out on the wing by himself and hold the wounded tail gunner from slipping off until the other crewmembers could help them into the dinghy. T/Sgt. Vosler’s actions on this occasion were an inspiration to all serving with him. The extraordinary courage, coolness, and skill he displayed in the face of great odds, when handicapped by injuries that would have incapacitated the average crew member, were outstanding.
... This Day in Aviation

You can grab your own B-17 from Fiddlers Green, http://www.fiddlersgreen.net/models/Aircraft/Boeing-B17.html
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Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #31 on: December 21, 2017, 11:22:41 AM »
December 21, 1967 "The Graduate' Opens



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On this day in 1967, the film "The Graduate" opens at two theaters in New York: the Coronet on Third Avenue and the Lincoln Art Theater on Broadway. The film, based on a 1963 novel by Charles Webb, had a simple premise: As its screenwriter explained it, "this kid graduates college, has an affair with his parents' best friend, and then falls in love with the friend's daughter." (It was, he added, "the best pitch I ever heard.") In other words, "The Graduate" was an uneasy exploration of what it meant to be young and adrift at a time of extraordinary confusion and upheaval. The film was a hit: The New Yorker called it "the biggest success in the history of movies," while The Saturday Review said it was "not merely a success; it has become a phenomenon." It earned $35 million in the first six months it was onscreen (by contrast, it cost just $3 million to make) and became the highest-grossing movie of 1968.

"The Graduate" made household names out of many of its stars. Though the young stage actor Dustin Hoffman had never been in a movie before, he rocketed to stardom thanks to his brilliant portrayal of the film's protagonist, the aimless Benjamin Braddock. At the same time, a marginally famous folk-pop duo called Simon & Garfunkel sold millions of records as a result of the film, which made their songs a part of its narrative in complex and sophisticated ways. (Some of those songs had already been released; others, like the movie's title tune, were brand-new.) In June 1968, the single "Mrs. Robinson" hit No. 1 on the pop chart, and that year the film's soundtrack album won a Grammy.

The movie also made a star out of Benjamin Braddock's graduation present: a bright-red Alfa Romeo Duetto Spider. Alfa Romeo had been making racecars for decades—even Enzo Ferrari drove an Alfa before he began building his own racers—but had never sold very many in the United States. (American customers preferred larger cars, and when they did buy smaller sports cars they tended to buy them from British manufacturers like MG and Triumph.) But the 1967 Duetto Spider, a two-seat convertible roadster, was a real beauty: It had a sharp nose and a rounded, tapered rear end, glass-covered headlights, and what designers called a "classic scallop" running down the side. It handled well, could go from 0 to 60 miles per hour in about 10 seconds, and got 23 miles per gallon of gas.

Though the Duetto Spider was a great car and a pop-culture icon, Americans still weren't interested in buying it. The model—with new names like the Spider Veloce, the Quadrifoglio and even the Graduate—stayed on the market until 1994, without much sales success. In 2007, the company's CEO announced that he might reintroduce the Duetto for Alfa Romeo's 100th anniversary in 2010.
... History.com

Last summer, I was going through a couple link sites, trying to flesh out my collections of car models.  There were several manufacturers that had very few models in my archives, including Alfa.  Thanks to Wayback Machine, you can have your own Red Duetto :  http://web.archive.org/web/20070309212839/http://members.at.infoseek.co.jp/papermodels/duetto/duetto.htm
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Vermin King

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Re: December (2017)
« Reply #32 on: December 22, 2017, 12:51:51 PM »
December 22, 1964 SR-71 First Flight



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Lockheed test pilot Robert J. “Bob” Gilliland made a solo first flight of the first SR-71A, 61-7950, at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California. The “Blackbird” flew higher than 45,000 feet (13,716 meters) and more than 1,000 miles per hour (1,609 kilometers per hour) before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, 22 Miles (35 kilometers) northeast, to begin the flight test program.

Bob Gilliland made the first flight of every Lockheed SR-71 as they were produced. It is reported that he has logged more flight time in excess of Mach 3 than any other pilot.
...This Day in Aviation

For the model, I'll point you to Ken West's model, https://www.ecardmodels.com/index.php/1-32-lockheed-sr-71-blackbird-paper-model.html.  Don't forget Dave's accessory kit when you get it.
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